The formal paper project is at least 10 pages long in American Medical Assn. (AMA) or American Psychological Assn. (APA) style. If your discipline publishes in another style, I will allow this after seeing an example in your highest tier journal. If you want to see what I expect, look in Rough Draft exemplars in CONTENT. So how will we build this paper while completing assignments? The first page (pg. 1) is your Coverpage followed by an Abstract (all of pg. 2, single spaced justified). The abstract is 322 words long and covers all aspects of the study. The abstract is written last, AFTER the paper is completed in week 8 and then becomes page 2 of the paper after the Coverpage. I will include sample student draft papers in CONTENT to guide you. The goal is to use all of the resources available to you while you construct a research paper on a Topic of your choice. Once refined, the topic becomes your dependent variable…your paper will address the influence of one or more independent variables on the topic…your paper is the answer to the the question “How does the independent variable(s) influence the dependent variable under examination”, or dep var = indep var I find that most students like to select and study a topic (disease, injury, medication, therapy, etc) that is close to them or their immediate family, friends, etc. As you mature in your major, the topic you choose is further influenced or biased by your ‘new worldview’ that is created by training and clinical/hospital/field experience. The topic is initially fleshed out in the Introduction (pg. 3-4), where you explain the topic, why you think it is important, basic details and prevalence, epidemiology, distribution in your population you wish to study, etc. The Introduction should be about a page to 1.5 pages long and in sufficient detail that allows me to understand what it is you are studying, and the significance, why you think it is important to share this knowledge with the world. The Introduction is ended with a Problem Statement (hypothesis) and your narrowed dep var = indep var A helpful way to build your paper is to start with the FINAL EXAM, which is now open… look at the Final exam (in Content) and answer the Final exam questions (referenced to the suggested reading/text and slides/notes) and build your paper around your responses to the questions on the Final. This helps gets the Final completed and submitted on time, and it is more useful than just giving an examination at the end of the course. The Final exam is due to me in Dropbox week 7-8. I grade the Final with an eye on how you answered the questions based upon the context of your research project/paper. Once you select and Introduce a topic, we need to narrow the independent variables. We will spend 1 week just on this endeavor, which then allows you to create a problem statement. The problem statement is located at the conclusion of the introduction, and precedes the Review of the Literature. The Review of the Literature (pg. 4-6) will use your references, and they should specifically address the indep var’s influence on the topic. References and citations that do not provide a rationale about “why something does (or does not) address the dep var” take up valuable space and do not strengthen your argument ….avoid them. All references (10 minimum) must be derived from a peer-reviewed journal or textbook… absolutely no annotated bibliography, URL/websites, Wikipedia or magazines/popular media. The Review of the Literature should be about 1.5 pages long and in sufficient detail about each citation, so that I can understand the impact of that paper on the dep var. Do not use an annotated bibliography style in your paper….present your arguments about each citation in a narrative format. I will provide quantitative and qualitative student papers for you to use as rough models. Your ROUGH DRAFT will be in the ASSESSMENTS/Assignments dropbox in WEEK 8-9. The next part of the paper after the Review of the Literature is the Methods (pg. 6-7) section. Be sure to look at the Georgia Southern Institutional Review Board for the protection of human subjects; we must always have informed consent, identify fragile populations, and to institutional review board (IRB) and gain approval before we begin the study, as well as health information portability and privacy or HIPPA protections…..mention these in your paper. Here I recommend you adopt and use the methods section of one of your citations (paraphrase in your own words, do not cut and paste), and then consult the scale of measure…the power of the paper and the proper use of the statistical procedure is determined by the scale of measure (attached for your convenience in Content). In Discussion (pg. 6-7) you must address the limits of your research and include issues of small sample size, validity, reliability, and any risks of error or bias that could prove injurious to a patient or study participant. This is usually one to 1.5 pages in length. Conclusions (pg. 7-9) are your final thoughts and recommendations for future research. Should be 1 page in length and discuss your experience finding data, your perspective of the topic after studying it for 9 weeks, and any new discoveries of a new therapy, medications, surgical techniques, or lessons learned in the process. References or Bibliography (pg. 9-10) with all 10 references cited in the body of the paper. FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED IN PAPER Directions: Complete this exam contextually, in that all questions should refer to the course slides and notes and to the study that you are doing for credit. You may refer to your references, your papers bibliography or practical examples if the question is not addressed in your study. These must be answered in the context of your study! Note: Please answer in a detailed but short paragraph how you would answer each question in the context of your study. The total of this work should be 3-5 pages.if you cannot address the question because you didnt use that particular tool or measurement, discuss and explain how you would have used it to better understand your research topic. This will add clarity to your arguments in the Final paper. 1. Your instructor has reviewed several strategies to conduct and report on scientific research. Discuss the procedures in the positivistic, scientific method and the components of this research paper. List two reasons why you agree or disagree with this worldview and how you might utilize it for your future research agenda. 2. We have stated that the researcher must remember the equation [dependent variables = independent variables]. Discuss the differences between independent and dependent variables and the influence one exerts upon the other. How was this theory influential in your study or project? 3. Create a list of the independent variables you identified in your study (Hint: these are important client, institutional, environmental, or patient characteristics). Give one example of a variable you could change or ‘fix’ in a departmental, governmental, or organizational policy. 4. When creating a study, one must address the operational definitions for individual studies. Give 3 examples of operational definitions you encountered in your project. How does this process help or hinder the researcher? 5. Define the different scales of measurement (i.e. Ordinal, Nominal, Interval, Ratio). In each of these scales of measure, how would the researcher decide on which statistical analysis to use? How did you decide what methodology to use (theoretically, you will tell me in your METHODS chapter what you decided to do with all of the data). 6. Discuss the types of reliability. Why does a researcher in health care consider reliability an important component of their study? 7. Define validity. Examine internal and external validities and list attributes or problems associated with validity issues (think from the perspective of a potential patient or an informed peer reviewer of your study). 8. Discuss the characteristics of a quantitative research design. Name and discuss at least two designs from this worldview or viewpoint. Why would you decide to use this worldview or research methodology (instead of qualitative)? 9. Discuss the characteristics of a qualitative research design. Name and discuss at least two designs from this worldview or viewpoint. Why would you decide to use this worldview or research methodology (instead of quantitative)? 10. Your instructor has stated that the best positivistic (quantitative) studies often arise from a relativist study or (qualitative) framework of inquiry. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of qualitative and quantitative research designs. If you had it to do over, would you change the methodology you used in your study?